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Animal Behaviour (Inglés) Tapa blanda – 15 ene 2012

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Tapa blanda, 15 ene 2012
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This historic book may have numerous typos, missing text or index. Purchasers can download a free scanned copy of the original book (without typos) from the publisher. 1900. Not illustrated. Excerpt: ... chapter vii the evolution of animal behaviour I.--Tnk Physiological Aspect At the outset of our inquiry, wo used the word " behaviour" in a wide and comprehensive sense. Thus broadly used, I said, the term in all cases indicates and draws attention to the reaction of that which we speak of as behaving in response to certain surrounding forees or cireumstances which evoko the behaviour. The behaviour of living cells is dependent on changes in their environment; that of deciduous trees, as they put forth their leaves in the spring or shed them in tho antumn, is related to the chango of the senson; instinctive, intelligent, and emotional behaviour are allied forth in response to those cireumstances which exereise a constraining influence at the moment of action. Used in this comprehensive sense, the term "behaviour" neither implies nor exclndes the presence of consciousness. We know from our owu experience, however, that consciousness does in some cases accompany behaviour, and we infer that in many other cases it may be present. But we need a criterion of its presence to guide our inferences, and this criterion we found in the ability of living beings to profit by experience. In Dr. Stout's phraseology, if a thing seems to acquire meaning for such a being, and the behaviour is guided in accordance with such acquired meaning, we infer the presence of consciousness as supplying conditions effective in determining its course. Still this does not exclnde, nay, rather it presupposes, the presence of sentience at a lower stage of evolution, 295 u sentience which is as yet ineffective since the process of conscious coalescence Iris not begun, or hits not been curried fur enough. In foregoing chapters we Lave constantly held the problems of evolution in view, and in speci...

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