- Tapa dura: 324 páginas
- Editor: Girvin Press (4 de noviembre de 2008)
- Idioma: Inglés
- ISBN-10: 1443726338
- ISBN-13: 978-1443726337
- Valoración media de los clientes: Sé el primero en opinar sobre este producto
New Ways In Psychoanalysis (Inglés) Tapa dura – 4 nov 2008
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NEW WAYS IN PSYCHOANALYSIS by KAREN HORNEY. Contents include: INTRODUCTION 7 I. FUNDAMENTALS OF PSYCHOANALYSIS 17 II. SOME GENERAL PREMISES OF FREUD S THINKING 37 III. THE LIBIDO THEORY 47 IV. THE OEDIPUS COMPLEX 79 V. THE CONCEPT OF NARCISSISM 88 VI. FEMININE PSYCHOLOGY 1O1 VII. THE DEATH INSTINCT 12O VIII. THE EMPHASIS ON CHILDHOOD Igg IX. THE CONCEPT OF TRANSFERENCE 154 X. CULTURE AND NEUROSES l68 XI. THE EGO AND THE ID 183 XII. ANXIETY 193 XIII. THE CONCEPT OF THE SUPER-EGO 2OJ XIV. NEUROTIC GUILT FEELINGS 232 XV. MASOCHISTIC PHENOMENA 246 XVI. PSYCHOANALYTIC THERAPY 2 6 INDEX 3O7. INTRODUCTION: MY desire to make a critical re-evaluation of psycho analytical theories had its origin in a dissatisfaction with therapeutic results. I found that almost every patient offered problems for which our accepted psychoanalyt ical knowledge offered no means of solution, and which therefore remained unsolved. As most analysts probably do, at first I attributed the resulting uncertainty to my own lack of experience, lack of understanding or blind spots. I remember pester ing more experienced colleagues with questions such as what Freud or they understood by ego, why sadistic impulses were interrelated with anal libido 1 and why so many different trends were regarded as an expression of latent homosexuality without, however, obtaining answers that seemed satisfactory. I had my first active doubts as to the validity of psy choanalytical theories when I read Freuds concept of feminine psychology, doubts which were then strength ened by his postulate of the death instinct. But it was several years before I started to think through psycho analytical theories in a critical way. As will be seen throughout the book, the system of theories which Freud has gradually developed is so con sistent that when one is once entrenched in them it is difficult to make observations unbiased by his way of thinking. It is only through recognizing the debatable premises on which this system is built that one acquires a clearer vision as to the sources of error contained in the individual theories. In all sincerity I may say that I regard myself qualified to make the criticisms con tained in this book, because I consistently applied Freuds theories for a period of over fifteen years. The resistance which many psychiatrists as well as laymen feel toward orthodox psychoanalysis is due not only to emotional sources, as is assumed, but also to the debatable character of many theories. The complete refutation of psychoanalysis which these critics often resort to is regrettable because it leads to discarding the valid with the dubitable and thereby prevents a recognition of what psychoanalysis essentially has to offer. I found that the more I took a critical stand to ward a series of psychoanalytical theories, the more I realized the constructive value of Freuds fundamental findings and the more paths opened up for the under standing of psychological problems. Thus the purpose of this book is not to show what is wrong with psychoanalysis, but, through eliminating the debatable elements, to enable psychoanalysis to de velop to the height of its potentialities. As a result of both theoretical considerations and practical experi ence, I believe that the range of problems which can be understood is enlarged considerably if we cut loose from certain historically determined theoretical prem ises and discard the theories arising on that basis. My conviction, expressed in a nutshell, is that psycho analysis should outgrow the limitations set by its being an instinctivistic and a genetic psychology. As to the latter, Freud tends to regard later peculiarities as almost direct repetitions of infantile drives or reactions hence he expects later disturbances to vanish if the under lying infantile experiences are elucidated...
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I actually ended up with greater respect for Freud after reading this book. Horney begins each chapter by describing in detail Freud's concepts (e.g. Oedipus complex, death instinct, superego) and how he arrived at them. She does this so well that in some cases I found myself asking "That makes sense, what's wrong with that?" before then reading her objections.
To give one example, there is Horney's objection to Freud's explanation of what is the basic core of psychiatric problems. In Freud's view, they are caused by the conflict between our basic instincts that govern our lives, and the "ego" which is but a cluster of certain of those instincts. She shows some problems with this theory, both academically and practically (the latter meaning how it can negatively impact therapy), and proposes her own explanation of the patient's problems. In Horney's view they are caused by intense fears stemming from adverse childhood experience. As the person grows up, most of their energy is put into avoiding danger rather than seeking satisfaction. This impairs their relationships with people because they go into them seeing the people as potentially hostile, and the inevitable problems that result from this compulsive defensiveness only validate the person's fears leading them to create even more defenses which cause even more problems, eventually exploding in the acute symptoms that people check in to a psychiatrist's office for.
For those familiar with Horney, this book's format is a bit different from that of her other books. In her other books, it's entirely about her own theories. This is one of her earlier books, and it seems she, educated a Freudian, felt the need to make a point-by-point comparison between Freud's theories and how she herself has come to understand the human psyche. And she does an excellent job.
I'd recommend this book to:
1.) Someone who thinks psychoanalysis is nonsense because they heard a caricature of Freud's theories and decided he was "full of it".
2.) A fan of Horney, who wants to read more of what she had to offer as well as see the evolution of her thought.
3.) *Anybody* who wants to understand themselves better, especially if they have ever had any psychiatric issues or even just a lot of social anxiety or something.
The third point is probably more true of Horney's other works (such as "Our Inner Conflicts" and "Neurosis and Human Growth") but applies well enough here. There's a bit more jargon in this book than in her other works, which seems unavoidable since she has to dissect the core theories of psychoanalysis. But she does a great job explaining any fancy terms she uses and keeping her writing as lucid as possible. She had a real gift for that.
That's about all I have to say. Just for fun, here's a sample paragraph from the book:
"Taking again as an example the need to appear perfect, I would be interested primarily in understanding what this trend accomplishes for the individual (eliminating conflicts with others and making him feel superior to others), and also what consequences the trend has on his character and his life. The latter investigation would make it possible to understand, for example, how such a person anxiously conforms with expectations and standards to the extent of becoming a mere automaton, and yet subversively defies them; how this double play results in listlessness and inertia; how he is proud of his apparent independence, yet actually is entirely dependent on the expectations and opinions of others; how he is terrified lest anyone should discover the flimsiness of his moral strivings and the duplicity which has pervaded his life; how this in turn has made him seclusive and hypersensitive to criticism."
OUCH, Karen. Get out of my nutshell!
Not your nutshell? She has more!
Excellent book. Read it.