- Tapa dura: 288 páginas
- Editor: McGraw-Hill Education (1 de enero de 2010)
- Colección: Economia e discipline aziendali
- Idioma: Inglés
- ISBN-10: 1422124819
- ISBN-13: 978-1422124819
- Valoración media de los clientes: 5.0 de un máximo de 5 estrellas Ver todas las opiniones (1 opinión de cliente)
- Clasificación en los más vendidos de Amazon: nº89.328 en Libros en idiomas extranjeros (Ver el Top 100 en Libros en idiomas extranjeros)
- Ver el Índice completo
Seizing the white space (Economia e discipline aziendali) (Inglés) Tapa dura – 1 ene 2010
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Descripción del producto
"Johnson invites leaders to radically rethink their growth strategies... arguing that companies must constantly innovate beyond what they have already done, venturing beyond their skills and not hesitate to go into the unknown." -- Business Digest "This practical treatise on growth and innovation doesn't disappoint. Highlighting the importance of business model innovation to successful growth strategy, the book's central premise is that companies must innovate away from what they have done before, venturing beyond their core capabilities and into the unknown -- what Johnson calls "white space" -- to exploit new growth opportunities." -- Business Digest (Strategy Supplement) "This book scores 9 out of 10 for me (for no good reason I hesitate to give it 10)... If you are a business change consultant, either working for a corporate or for a consultancy, this is a must read book." -- Chartered Institute for IT "Having led several significant organizational transformations over the years of my Navy career, I found Mark Johnson's book particularly on point. He is a true pathfinder in the world of business thinking!" -- Admiral James Stavridis, U.S. Navy "It's not enough to create new products or services--your organization must be ready to imagine and implement new business models to fully exploit many of them. Johnson has come up with a truly practical process for doing just that--taking the fear out of venturing into the unknown and opening up new territories of opportunity." -- J.W. Marriott, Jr. , Chairman and CEO, Marriott International
Reseña del editor
Business model innovation is the key to unlocking transformational growth but few executives know how to apply it to their businesses. In Seizing the White Space, Mark Johnson gives them the playbook.
Leaving the rhetoric to others, Johnson lays out an eminently practical framework that identifies the four fundamental building blocks that make business models work. In a series of in-depth case studies, he goes on to vividly illustrate how companies are using innovative business models to seize their white space and achieve transformational growth by fulfilling unmet customer needs in their current markets; serving entirely new customers and creating new markets; and responding to tectonic shifts in market demand, government policy, and technologies that affect entire industries.
He then lays out a structured process for designing a new model and developing it into a profitable and thriving enterprise, while investigating the vexing and sometimes paradoxical managerial challenges that have commonly thwarted so many companies in their unguided forays into the unknown.
Business model innovators have reshaped entire sectors - including retail, aviation, and media - and redistributed billions of dollars of value. With road-tested frameworks, analytics, and diagnostics, this book gives executives everything they need to reshape their businesses and achieve transformative growth."Ver Descripción del producto
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Seizing the White Space: Business Model Innovation For Growth and Renewal is a fine exception. Author Mark Johnson co-founded Innosight with author and HBR professor Clay Christensen, and while Christensen has been publishing niche extensions on disrupting education and health care, this book is a wonderful addition to the broader ideas of Innovator's Dilemma and Innovator's Solution. Both of the latter books were incredibly important in explaining how companies lose edge in the marketplace and are often blindsided by innovation, but there were some barriers to understanding exactly how to apply the concepts. Johnson does a great job of taking that next step in Seizing The White Space.
The book is squarely focused on showing companies how to build new businesses in area that are outside their current business models. This could be through replacing an existing business, building new models where there are barriers to consumption, or by filling gaps in the market. The final section delivers roadmap on how to go about the redesign and implementation of your new business model. Cases include Tata Motors and Hindustan Levr (India), Xiameter that grew out of Dow Corning, and Better Place, the Israeli start-up trying to change the automotive business model with electric cars.
Seizing The White Space is surprisingly short at 150 pages which makes the book very accessible. The language and concepts also match that accessibility. The book is worth a quick look, a reminder of the unconscious parts of strategy that you too often take for granted.
For people who have followed the development of the business model concept, and read case studies such as Southwest Airlines, Hilti, Xerox, Kodak, DEC, FedEx, and Tata, this book is a bit of a disappointment. I looked forward to reading this book and wanted it to be a 5 star experience, but after reading it I have more questions about the author and the writing of the book, than about any new content or ideas.
The book in three bullet points:
* It presents the concept "White Space" defined as an area where new or existing customers are served in fundamentally different ways and there is a poor fit with the current (incumbent) organization; "The range of potential activities not defined or addressed by the company's current business model".
* It provides a business model framework, "The four box business model", comprising a customer value proposition, a profit formula and key resources and processes, very similar to the model presented in the 2008 HBR article Reinventing Your Business Model by Mark W. Johnson, Clayton M. Christensen, and Henning Kagermann, with the focus point on the customers' job-to-be-done.
* It briefly explores the circumstances when a new business model might be needed, being when you must change your current profit formula (overhead cost structure, resource velocity or both), develop many new kinds of key resources and processes, and/or create fundamentally different core metrics, rules and norms to run your business.
A brief summary of the different chapters:
1. The White Space and Business Model Innovation
Introductory discussion on core vs. non-core business, defining the white space that lies far outside an organization's usual way of working, where assumptions are high and knowledge is low. In contrast to the Blue Ocean concept, described in the book Blue Ocean Strategy by W. Chan Kim and Renée Mauborgne, (not mentioned in Seizing the White Space), the white space focus on what a specific organization can do, whereas blue ocean is about doing things differently than competition to be in uncontested markets. In the first chapter Mark includes a nice table on companies founded in the last quarter century that have entered the Fortune 500 in the last decade.
The book contains some questionable statements without references or discussion and chapter one is no exception: "Most successful innovative business models are forged by start-ups" (p. 18) - I would like to see the reference and discussion (and definition of "successful", "innovative" and "start-up") as most examples and discussions covered in this book are not on start-ups.
2. The Four-Box Business Model Framework
The chapter starts off with the discussion about lack of shared vocabulary, "No one to my knowledge squarely focuses on the elements in the business system that are central to value's creation and delivery and the way those elements work together to ensure or impede the overall success of the enterprise" (p. 23) I laughed out loud when I read the references related to the statement above, all from the same page: Peter Drucker (Harvard Business Review), Joan Magretta (Harvard Business School, former strategy editor Harvard Business Review), Henry William Chesbrough x2 (Harvard Business School Press). I would argue that the MAIN reason why there is a lack of shared vocabulary regarding business models is due to academics/consultants that ignore the work of other academics/consultants working in other schools/companies than their own.
The first element of Mark's Four-Box Framework (see figure at tbmdb) is the Customer Value Proposition (CVP), an offering that helps customers more effectively, reliably, conveniently, or affordably solve an important problem (or satisfy a job-to-be-done) at a given price. In some versions of the model, such as Figure 9, 19, 20 and 24, there is no explicit customer mentioned in the CVP. In other versions, such as Figure 21 and in the model presented in the 2008 HBR article "Reinventing you business model", a target customer is included. The second element is the Profit Formula that defines how the company will create value for itself and its shareholders. It specifies the revenue model, the cost structure, target unit margin and how quickly resources need to be used to support target volume. The third element is Key Resources, the people, technology, products, equipment, information, channels, partnerships, funding, and brand required to deliver the value proposition to the customer. The fourth and final element is Key Processes such as design, development, sourcing, manufacturing, marketing, hiring and training by which a company delivers on the customer value proposition. Readers familiar with popular concepts such as Osterwalder's business model canvas recognize most terms and ideas.
3. The White Space Within: Transforming Existing Markets
Chapter three discuss business model innovation opportunities within existing markets by delivering new customers value propositions, something Mark argues often relate to predictable shifts in what customers are willing to pay a premium price for (at least the primary basis of competition). He presents an argument based on one example on how companies compete and differentiate with different forms of innovation (see figure at tbmdb). The references used for the "predictable shifts" are to colleague Christensen's The Innovator's Dilemma: The Revolutionary Book that Will Change the Way You Do Business (Collins Business Essentials), and Geoffrey A. More's Crossing the Chasm: Marketing and Selling Disruptive Products to Mainstream Customers, a book about selling disruptive products to mainstream customers. I would love to read more about these shifts, the research behind it, and how for example design and the use of brands affects the shifts in the basis of competition? The chapter contains a nice case study on Dow Corning and Xiameter (mostly covered in HBR article from 2009), and the more classical case studies on Hilti, FedEx and IKEA.
4. The White Space Beyond: Creating New Markets
Seizing the white space beyond means developing new business models to serve entirely new customers and create new markets, often where large groups of potential customers are shut out of a market because existing offerings are too expensive, complicated or that the potential customers lack access. In the chapter Mark provides a table of archetypal business models and a nice case study on Hindustran Unilever and the Shakti Initiative together with some shorter versions covering MinuteClinic and SAP.
Obvious concepts to discuss in relation creating new markets are the tools, frameworks and methodologies presented in Blue Ocean Strategy: How to Create Uncontested Market Space and Make Competition Irrelevant, by W. Chan Kim and Renée Mauborgne. Even though the Blue Ocean Strategy concepts are trademark protected, registered by ITM Research (INSEAD), other authors have been able to refer to the concepts and tools presented in the book.
5. The White Space Between: Dealing with Industry Discontinuity
Chapter five focus on the uncharted territory between what was and what is to be, after game changing events such as the commercialization of Internet technology or the push to address greenhouse gas emissions. Mark presents ideas in relation to unpredictable or radical shifts in market demand, in technology and in government policy targeted at the business environment. Examples are in the defense industry (transformative market shifts), Encyclopaedia Britannica (technology driven shifts), and Better Place (shifts in government policy and regulation). The chapter also contains a nice table including the industries and infrastructure of each technological revolution, from Carlota Perez' Technological Revolutions and Financial Capital.
6. Designing a New Business Model
In the chapter Mark discusses the business model innovation process from identifying a job-to-be-done to creating the customer value proposition, and compares the new business model that would be required with the existing model. When searching for unfilled jobs-to-be-done Mark puts emphasis on not only functional aspects of a job but also its social and emotional aspects, together with a short reflection on that Web 2.0 tools give businesses the ability to deeply understand their customers through increased interaction, with Threadless as an example. He introduces a way to use levers to contrast offerings, and mentions the reverse income statement to working up the projections for a business with a new profit formula. This chapter also contains an original and interesting case study from a project undertaken by Innosight with the customer name changed for purposes of confidentiality and a table with business model analogies.
7. Implementing the Model
For the implementation of a new business model, Mark describes three stages: incubation (1-3 years), acceleration (2-5 years), and transition (1-3 years). Incubation is the process of testing (early, cheaply and often) to identify and verify the assumptions most critical to success. Once the new model is proven viable, the Acceleration stage focus on setting up processes, together with rules, norms and metrics, to make the business model profitable. The final stage addresses the question if the new business can be integrated into the core or if it must remain a separate unit in order to thrive. Mark also discusses acquisitions and some successful and less successful examples.
8. Overcoming Incumbent Challenges
In the final chapter Mark describes three dangers incumbent face when implementing new business models: 1) Failure the allocate resources, 2) The Urge to cram new opportunities into the existing business model, and 3) Impatience for growth. He also briefly addresses the problem of the existing rules, norms, and metrics used by the company something that would be very interesting to dig deeper into.
My main questions after reading this book:
Why do Mark ignore existing body of knowledge and obvious references when defining the White space and his business model framework, and instead almost exclusively refer to his own or colleagues' work? Why does he focus so much on old examples, already covered in other books and articles, without using his frameworks to provide more depth into the cases? Why not look at modern examples of companies pushing its core business into new areas? Why are several included figures not referenced in the text, nor referenced for source?
A quick comparison with some other popular books on business models:
* Business Model Generation: A Handbook for Visionaries, Game Changers, and Challengers by Osterwalder and Pigneur is the obvious book to compare with. It also aims to introduce a standard language, a business model framework, and ideas on how to develop, test and implement new business models. In contrast to Seizing the White Space, Business Model Generation uses many sources and refers to popular management concepts, including Blue Ocean Strategy when looking at new market opportunities. Osterwalder focus much more on the customer and customer segments, and have that as a very explicit element of the business model framework. For me, Business Model Generation is a more original and content rich book. See separate review of this book.
* Getting to Plan B: Breaking Through to a Better Business Model by John Mullins and Randy Komisar focus more on the financials and the start-up situation. It defines the business model slightly different from the two books above but shares the idea to experiment and adjust the business model as you learn new things. See separate review of this book.
* The Profit Zone: How Strategic Business Design Will Lead You to Tomorrow's Profits by Slywotzky, Morrison and Andelman, has a heavier focus on profitability and the changing areas in which high profit is possible to keep, it is a quick read. See separate review of this book.
* Open Business Models: How to Thrive in the New Innovation Landscape by Henry Chesbrough has a heavier focus on technological innovation in the context of business models and also covers the important area of Intellectual Property in relation to open business models.
All in all, Seizing the White Space is a good book, containing many valuable lessons. It will not WOW you, and it presents surprisingly few new case studies. One of the most important (implicit) lessons from the book is that business models need to be consciously designed and that companies must always stay on their toes looking for new opportunities around their core business, but also in the white space.
//Anders, The Business Model Database
Addition April 4th:
After reading Mark W. Johnson's comment on my review, I read several parts of the book again, and I want to add that the case study in the beginning of the book on Lockheed Martin's Hybrid Airship, not mentioned in my book review, is really novel.
Johnson's next move in the book is to show how a new business model can be designed on the basis of his four-box formula. He starts with the first step of defining a new customer value proposition (CVP). After this, he moves backwards to work out the 'processes' that need to be created or improved so as to fulfill this new CVP as well as singling out the `resource requirements' in the organization. From there onwards he shows how to work out the `profit model' for the newly generated business model. Hence, once all those four boxes have been filled `democratically' (with participation from managers at all levels of the company) and carefully, the company is now ready to implement the new strategy.
At this point comes the other strength of the book whereby it does not leave the subject at the point of strategy formulation. Instead, it moves to explain even the knittty gritty details of implementation/execution. Here also Johnson is very good and drives on deep experience.
The book is full of enlightening case examples. Some are known stuff (like iPod, iPhone, Hitli etc.) but you find a lot of new examples which are really good.
When you reach the end of the book -which I assure you it will be very very swift (I finished it in only three sittings)- you feel relieved because you feel like you finally have a workable model in your hands which you can start toying with tomorrow morning.
This is a very very good book on strategy. There may be other good business model books around as one reviewer suggested. But this book should certainly be included in that list of excellent books on business model generation and implementation. I personally thank the author for giving me such a great pleasure in reading this wonderful work.
The first third of the book discusses a framework for evaluating a business, breaking it into boxes to aid in exploring the fit of an idea. Fairly pedandic stuff, b-school 101, but useful to force one into fundamental and disciplined introspection.
The latter parts of the book are where the real value emerges. Three critical lenses emerge - (1) how do you evaluate a novel concept (which, for me, offered thoughts on how to find a new concept to begin with - not a core mission of the book), (2) how do you appropriately construct a business model to support that innovative idea, and (3) how to launch and test that plan. Tons of case studies examine how businesses have gotten the business innovation right, then have either succeeded or failed in lining up a winning business model to make it run.
There's a fair amount of discussion about how to protect innovation from the incumbencies within a large organization. This is to be expected, given Mark's decade in collaboration with Clay Christensen of "Innovator's Dilemma" fame, which examines in part how corporations smother internal innovation and lose their technology leadership to emerging businesses. I would expect that to be of high relevance for corporate types, though us startup guys have escaped those bureaucratic hurdles